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WHAT TYPES JOB INTERVIEWS ARE THERE?


There are basically two types of interviews: the screening interview and the hiring/selection interview.

Screening Interviews

Screening interviews are used to qualify you for selection before you meet with a hiring authority. Screeners will try to weed you out rather than get you hired. These interviews are normal for companies who receive hundreds or thousands of solicitations for a single job opportunity. Screening interviews are usually quick, efficient and low cost strategies that result in a short list of qualified candidates. They assist Operations Managers to save critical time by eliminating unqualified candidates.

If invited to a face-to-face screening interview, it will usually be with a third-party recruiter or someone from human resources. Human resource interviewers are typically experienced and often are professionals skilled at interviewing and screening candidates. They may not understand the details of the job that you interview for, but they are effective at judging character, intelligence, and good fits for the company culture. They are also good at identifying potential "red flags" or problem areas with your work background and general qualifications.

Your toughest task might be to get past the screeners to the Operation's Managers. Be prepared to explain any discrepancies in your background (i.e. gaps in employment or education, frequent job changes, layoffs, etc.).

Some examples of screening interviews include telephone interviews, computer interviews, video- conference interviews and the structured interview.


Telephone Interviews
Telephone interviewing is the most common way to perform an initial screening interview. It helps both the interviewer and the candidate get a general sense of mutual interest in pursuing things beyond the first interview. It also saves time and money, and may be tape recorded for review by other interviewers.

During a phone interview, your goal as a candidate should be to arrange a face-to-face meeting. If this is not possible, try to arrange another time to talk, or get the name/address of a suitable contact in the employer's firm so that you can submit a resume.

If you are caught off guard or unprepared with an incoming interview call, ask to meet in person, or reschedule the appointment for a more convenient time. Remember that the person calling is the one who establishes control. Therefore, it's to your advantage to place the call at a more convenient time.

Tips for phone interviews:

  • At the start of the conversation, make sure to write the person's name down correctly. Ask for the correct spelling. Ask their phone number so that you can call them back if cut off.
  • Keep the following items handy: copy of your resume, list of employer questions, pen, paper, research material on the employer, and any other notes you might have. It may also be a good idea to have a glass of water nearby.
  • Dress up as though you are going to a face-to-face meeting. This usually will help to enhance your energy level and professional presence.
  • Always try to smile speaking on the phone. People can usually sense when you're smiling or frowning.
  • Try to speak in a loud, clear voice considering that most phone reception reduces phone sound levels.
  • Ask several clever questions as if you were in a face-to-face meeting.
  • If you place the call, don't let the long-distance phone charge shorten the interview.
  • If confronted with a question you do not have a simple and effective answer for, state that the question may be better answered in person.
  • Thank the interviewer for his/her time, and follow up with a "thank you" letter.

Computer Interviews
These interviews are used to weed out top candidates from dozens or hundreds of candidates that may be applying for a specific job opening. Computer interviews involve answering a series of multiple-choice questions that will pre-qualify candidates for a potential job interview and/or request resume submission. Some interviews are handled through the telephone with push buttons, while others require accessing a web site to complete the interview with a computer keyboard and mouse. Computer interviews are often timed. Therefore, it may be worthwhile to go in as an alias in order to get a sense of questions and timing before applying under your real name.

Video-Phone and Video-Conferencing
Video-conferencing systems provide the transfer of audio and video between remote sites. More than half of the largest U.S. companies utilize video-conferencing as a means of convenient communication and as an alternative to more costly face-to-face meetings. Basically anyone in the world can perform video-conferencing with the use of a microphone, camera and compatible software. Video-conferencing is now available via the Internet. The continuous drop in cost makes it a popular resource for businesses as well as home use.
Tips for video-conferences:

  • Video-conferencing has similar video and audio qualities to that of a home video camera. Be sure to choose an outfit that looks good on you. To avoid problematic imaging, wear solid colors (not stripes or plaids).
  • In order to become comfortable during video-conferencing, practice a mock job interview using your home video camera.
  • For the best reception, choose full-face (straight) camera angles instead of angled views. Seek professional help for make-up matters.
  • If given a choice, use full view or wide-angle shots rather than close up shots. Leave the close up shots to the professionals.
  • Keep in mind that there usually is a lag between the spoken and heard word. Smile and maintain eye contact as if you are in a face-to-face interview.
  • Avoid jerky motions because only fluid motions maintain video integrity.

Structured Interviews

This type of interview is used to identify the best candidates by asking them the exact same questions. Employers attempt to create a common evaluation tool by providing an "apples-to-apples" comparison of candidates. Unfortunately, no two interviews are ever alike. Personal biases will affect the evaluation. Third-party recruiters or the employer's Human Resource department usually handles these interviews.

Hiring or Selection Interviews
In contrast to screening interviews, there are the more traditional hiring (or selection) interviews from Operation's Managers, department heads and executives who may be your ultimate bosses. These managers understand the technical qualifications needed to fill their vacant positions and the team chemistry needed to keep their departments running smoothly. As interviewers, they are usually less prepared or skilled at interviewing.

In fact, many spend only a few minutes looking over a resume before the interview and rarely prepare questions or strategies. Most do not like interviewing. They see it as an unfortunate, but necessary, task that takes away from job production. Employers feel that they must assume a position of control. If the situation is handled properly, they are usually more than willing to allow candidates to take the lead.

Hiring interviews are two-way streets where you also will be interviewing the employer for job suitability. Most of these interviews will take place in an office setting in one of several formats: one-on-one interviews, serial interviews, sequential interviews or panel interviews.

One-on-one interviews
This is the traditional interview where candidates meet with employers on a face-to-face, or one-on-one, basis. Each interview is somewhat unique and is loosely structured. Both parties typically walk away with a more natural sense of whether or not the fit is right.

Serial interviews
Candidates are passed from one interviewer to another throughout the course of a day. No decision is made on your suitability until the final interview has taken place and all interviewers have had a chance to discuss each other's interview. If facing serial interviews, try to find out something about the next interviewer (and the issues important to him/her) before the meeting. Also remember that you only have one chance to make the right first impression so make sure you are energized and ready for the next interview before taking it on. If you are not, excuse yourself to go to the restroom for a break or try to reschedule the balance of the interviews for another time.


Sequential interviews
Sequential interviews are the traditional means of interviewing whereby a candidate will meet with one or several interviewers on a one-on-one basis over the course of several days, weeks or months. Each interview moves the candidate progressively towards greater detail in respect to the position, the company and ultimately an offer. Testing may be one of the sequential interviews, as well as meeting with the top brass or even a third-party consultant.

Group or panel Interviews
In this situation, a candidate will go before a committee, sometimes as large as 10 people. This is usually done for efficient scheduling purposes in order to accommodate the management panel. Here candidates are evaluated on interpersonal skills, leadership, and their ability to think on their feet while dealing with issues in a stressful situation.

If confronted with this type of interview, candidates should try to identify the leader and the immediate supervisor of the position being considered. Think of the board as a single individual and try not to be intimidated by the numbers. It may be difficult to exercise any degree of real control over the panel, but try to focus on one or two key members and control their reaction to you. However, it is important to make eye contact and communicate individually to each panelist.


"The article above was written by construction recruiter Frederick Hornberger, CPC, president of Hornberger Management Company in Wilmington, Delaware (www.hmc.com), a construction recruiter specializing in senior level, executive search."


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